TALKNFUN: London Experience

Опубликовано: 26.04.2017

видео TALKNFUN: London Experience

Environment and ecology топик устная тема окружающая среда и экология

Реферат: London

LONDON As well as being the capital of England,

London is the capital of the United Kingdom. It is one of the greatest, most



colourful and interesting cities of the world, and it tops the list of the

cities I would like to visit. I know a lot about it - I have studied its map,

seen a lot of postcards, talked to people who have been there. Sometimes I

close my eyes and imagine I walk down Piccadilly, Regent or Oxford Street,

cross the Thames by London or Tower Bridge, or knock on the door of Number 10,

Downing Street, just to say “Hi!” to Tony Blair.

London is a city which was never planned. It has accumulated. So, it


Топик English schooling образование в школах Англии

includes the City of London, the West End and the East End. The city is really

large – more than 8 million people live in so-called Greater London – that is,

London and its suburbs. It stands on the both sides of the river Thames and 14

bridges span the river. The Thames, described variously as “liquid history” and

the “noblest river in Europe” is graced in London with a score of bridges,

tunnels and a barrier, but until 1750, when the first Westminster Bridge


Футбол и Английский в Англии | Образовательный Эксперт

opened, London Bridge was the one and the only. The first one built in stone

from 1176 to 1209 became renowned throughout Europe for its houses and a chapel

dedicated to St Thomas of Canterbury. Several of London bridges have special

features – Hammersmith Bridge has ornamental metal work and Vauxhall has larger

than life bronze figures representing pottery, engineering, architecture,

agriculture, science, fine arts, local government and education. Among the

boats which ply the river, few attract more attention than the Oxford and

Cambridge University Boat Race.

London was founded by the Romans in 43 A. D. and was called Londinium. In

61 A. D. the town was burned down and when it was rebuilt by the Romans it was

surrounded by a wall. That area within the wall is now called the City of

London. It is a financial and business center of the country. The Stock

Exchange, the Bank of England, offices of major banks and companies are all

there. People only come to the City to work, nobody lives there, and at night

it becomes deserted.

Here is situated the Tower of London. The Tower was built by William the

Conqueror who conquered England in 1066. The Tower of London has been

“fortress, palace, home of the Crown Jewels and national treasures, arsenal,

mint, prison, observatory, zoo and tourist attraction”, wrote the Duke of

Edinburgh in a book celebrating the Tower’s 900th anniversary. It is

interesting to mention the tradition connected with the history of Tower. The

royal menagerie departed to the Zoo in 1834, leaving only the ravens behind.

Tradition says that if the ravens leave, the Tower and the country will fall.

So Beefeaters – Warders of the Tower - give ravens meat every night.

The finest part of London is the West End with long streets of

fine shops, theaters, picture gallery. Soho, the home of strip-tease, the

cinema industry and international haute cuisine, is on the edge of theatreland,

rich in history and rich in cultural mix. The name Soho probably came from the

ancient hunting cry – So – Ho – in its farmland days. By the 19th

century it must have seemed a strange area, described by John Galsworthy in the

Forsyte Saga as “Untidy, full of Greeks, Ishmaelites, cats, Italians, tomatoes,

restaurants, organs, coloured stuffs, queer names, people looking out of out

windows, it dwells remote from the British Body Politic”. Today there is a

complete China Town and Restaurants serve haute cuisine from scores of

countries.

There are beautiful parks in the West End, such as St James’s Park, Green

Park, Kensington Gardens, and Hyde Park with its Speaker’s Corner there you

can go up on a platform and speak freely on the topic that you find vital. The

Royal Parks are central London‘s lungs. Bands play beside lakes, parks have

cafes and art galleries.

The Houses of Parliament with its Big Ben, the chimes of which are heard

throughout the world on the BBC World Service are also in the West End. Big

Ben, the voice of London, has been telling the time to the second since 1859.

Construction of the 320 foot clock tower began in the year Queen Victoria came

to the throne, 1837, as part of the reconstruction of the Houses of Parliament.

The Great Bell cracked, was recast and cracked again, given us the famous

resonating boom. Why Big Ben? There are two answers – either can be chosen. It

could have been named after Sir Benjamin Hall, chief commissioner of works at

that time. Or, perhaps, it was named by workmen – Benjamin Caunt – who brought

the bell from Whitechapel Foundry on a cart pulled by 16 white horses. The

Palace of Westminster – among the world’s most famous buildings – houses the

British Parliament: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The first

palace was built for Edward the Confessor, who came to the throne in 1042.

Every British citizen has the traditional right to ask to see his or her

Member of Parliament, and they meet in the highly decorative Central Lobby.

When Parliament is sitting, it is possible to hear debates from the Strangers’

Galleries. Even the Queen is subject to restrictions. For the State Opening of

Parliament she has to sit enthroned in the Lords – a custom which goes back to

the era of Charles I. For relaxation, the Members of Parliament have reception

rooms which lead onto the riverside terrace. In gardens across the road is the

Jewel Tower. Among moderns sculptures to have been placed in the vicinity is

the statue of Sir Winston Churchill, with his larger-than-life size sculpture

raised on a plinth.

White Hall and Downing Street are also in the West End. White Hall is a

street where most government offices are situated, and I have already mentioned

that No. 10, Downing Street is the official residence of the British Prime

Ministers for more than 250 years. The famous cul-de-sac of Downing Street was

created by Sir George Downing, member of Parliament, around 1680. Number 10 is

one of the original Downing Street houses to survive. No 10, with the most

photographed door in the world, is guarded outside by a single policeman. By

the way the nick-name of British policemen are “bobbies”, because of Sir

Robert Peel, who formed the police force.

The Queen, when she is in London, lives in Buckingham Palace. Buckingham

Palace facing the white marble and gilded Queen Victoria memorial, flies the

royal standard when the Queen is in residence. Today the Queen and the Duke of

Edinburgh have private suites in the North Wing, overlooking Green Park. Their

home is open to around 30.000 guests in summer, attending garden parties. The

entry costs around 20 pounds a person. The gardens have a lake, cascading water

and the wild life include flamingoes. From the Palace the Queen leaves on

ceremonial duties such as the State Opening of Parliament in early winter and

Trooping the colour to mark her official birthday in June.

The architecture of London is very impressive. There is St. Paul’s

Cathedral, for example, where a lot of famous people were buried. The National

and Tate Galleries contain many masterpieces of art.

Westminster Abbey has been the setting for every monarch’s coronation,

beginning with Edward the Confessor, a saintly man who came to the throne in

1040. The Abbey presents a pageant of noble, military, political and artistic

history. It has the graves of queens and kings, of poets, politicians and

churchmen. And the High Altar still contains the body of Edward the Confessor,

the Abbey’s founder.

Westminster Cathedral is the leading Roman Catholic Church in England. It

was built half a mile from the Abbey. The single bell in the 280 foot high

campanile is dedicated (like the Chapel in the Abbey) to Edward the Confessor.

This gift from Gwendolen, Duchess of Norfolk, is inscribed “St Edward, pray for

England”.

The East End is something quite different. It is the industrial

part of London. There are factories and docks there, and blocks of flats where

working people live. They form quite a contrast to what we can see in the West

End.

Conclusion

“When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life: for there is in

London all that life can afford” -, wrote Samuel Johnson in 1777. Naturally,

London is a cultural, scientific, and industrial center of the country, and it

means that a lot of interesting things are taking place there all the time.

CONTENTS

1. Introduction.

2. Main part.

2.1. The River.

2.2. The City of London.

2.3. The West End.

2.4. The East End.

3. Conclusion.

4. Bibliography.

Bibliography.

1. Е. Л. Занина. 95 устных тем по британскому языку. – М. Рольф, 1997.

2. Каверина В., Бойко В., Водянистых Н. 100 тем британского устного. – М. БАО

Пресс. 2002.

3. Васильев К. Б. Pilot One. Справочное пособие по британскому языку. СПБ.

Тригон. 1998.

4. London. 161 colour plates – map of the city centre. Thomas Benacci LTD.

London. 1997.

rss